Fri, 7 March 2014
Amebiasis is an infection of the large intestine and sometimes the liver and other organs caused by the single-celled, protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, an ameba.
Amebiasis may cause diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain, pain over the liver, and fever.
Amebiasis is relatively common in areas of Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Latin America where sanitation is poor.
Entamoeba histolytica exists in two forms: as an active parasite (trophozoite) and as a dormant parasite (cyst). Infection begins when cysts are swallowed. The cysts hatch, releasing trophozoites that multiply and can cause ulcers in the lining of the intestine. Occasionally, they spread to the liver or other part of the body. Some trophozoites become cysts, which are excreted in stool (feces) along with trophozoites. Outside the body, the fragile trophozoites die, but the hardy cysts survive.
Cysts can be spread directly from person to person or indirectly through food or water.
In places with poor sanitation, amebiasis is acquired by ingesting food or water that is contaminated with feces. Fruits and vegetables may be contaminated when grown in soil fertilized by human feces, washed in polluted water, or prepared by someone who is infected. Amebiasis may occur and spread in places with adequate sanitation if infected people are incontinent or hygiene is poor (for example, in day care centers or mental institutions). Amebiasis can also be spread through certain sexual practices (such as oral-anal sex).
Many infected people have few or no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur include increased gas (flatulence), cramping abdominal pain, and intermittent diarrhea, constipation, or both. In severe cases, the abdomen is tender when touched, and the stool contains mucus and blood. The person may also have a fever. Diarrhea may lead to dehydration. Wasting of the body (emaciation) and anemia can occur in people with chronic infection. Sometimes a large lump (ameboma) forms and blocks the intestine. Occasionally, trophozoites cause perforation of the intestinal wall, resulting in severe abdominal pain and an abdominal infection (peritonitis) that requires immediate medical attention.
In some people, the amebas spread to the liver where they can cause an abscess. Symptoms include fever, sweats, chills, weakness, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and pain or discomfort in the right upper abdomen over the liver.
Rarely, amebas spread to other organs (including the lungs or brain). The skin may also become infected, especially around the buttocks, genitals, or wounds caused by abdominal surgery or injury.
To diagnose amebiasis, a doctor collects stool samples for analysis. The best approach is to test the stool for a protein released by the amebas (antigen testing). Microscopic examination is often inconclusive. Three to six stool samples may be needed to find the amebas, and even when they are seen, they cannot be distinguished from other amebas, which look the same but are genetically different and do not cause disease. A flexible viewing tube (colonoscope) may be used to look inside the large intestine and to obtain a tissue sample if ulcers or other signs of infection are found there.
When amebas spread to sites outside the intestine (such as the liver), they may no longer be present in the stool. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be done to confirm an abscess in the liver, but these tests do not indicate the cause. Blood tests are then done to check for antibodies to the amebas. Or, if doctors suspect that a liver abscess is due to amebas, they often simply start a drug that kills amebas (an amebicide). If the person improves, the diagnosis is probably amebiasis.
If amebiasis is suspected and the person has symptoms, an amebicide is used. Drinking alcohol within a few days of taking metronidazole or tinidazole may result in nausea, vomiting, flushing, and headaches.
Neither metronidazole nor tinidazole always kills cysts that are in the large intestine. A second drug (such as paromomycin, iodoquinol, or diloxanide) is used to kill these cysts and thus prevent a relapse. One of these drugs can be used alone to treat people without symptoms who have the amebas in their stool.
Sun, 2 February 2014
We all want to do our part to help conserve and save the planet. Being “green” has become a routine for many people. However, what does it mean to be a green parent? You can actually do several things to help your new baby stay free of harmful chemicals.
Annually we understand and find out far more things as a human race. It was a great day when researchers confirmed that dark chocolate is in fact healthy for you. In the past few years we have found that there are many everyday items in our house that create toxins within our home.
Adults usually are not troubled by these chemicals, yet they can be really dangerous for infants. Being a green parent today means safeguarding your child from harmful toxins in your house. By just making a good choices you can help to make your new baby's world much healthier and safer for them. Here are several green tips for new parents.
The four walls of the baby's room is a place where you can make a significant difference. A typical paint can create smog when sunlight hits it, so try a low VOC paint.
"Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary, room-temperature conditions. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air. An example is formaldehyde, with a boiling point of –19 °C (–2 °F), slowly exiting paint and getting into the air.
Many VOCs are dangerous to human health or cause harm to the environment." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volatile_organic_compound
We have found a local company called Harlequin Paints that specialise in low VOC paints:
“Harlequin Paints was started in 1999 by three people passionate about paint and the environment. A chemist, a designer and a paint applicator. An unusual combination but one that has proved highly successful.
Harlequin Paints manufactures only water based products, and is the first company in South Africa to produce a range of solvent free paints. We also manufacture paint technique products, varnishes for furniture and floors, wood stains, custom made colour ranges for individual companies and scenic paint for the film industry.
Our Premium Paint range is independently verified as MINIMAL VOC, which means it contains less than 3.0 gr per litre of VOC (volatile organic compound). This is classified solvent free.
As an ethically green company we strive for good quality product and excellent, informative service. Our paint is tinted at our factory and each batch is checked by ourselves to ensure it is perfect.
Our aim is to inspire and encourage people to be as passionate about paint and the environment as we are. Choose your colour…… it will always be green.” http://www.harlequin.co.za
There are several things you should think about when considering furniture for your baby’s room. Recycling is an excellent thing for the environment, and lots of parents want vintage furnishings for the baby’s room. First make certain you look into the safety of vintage pieces. Take a look at consumer web-sites for any recalls. Additionally, you will need to make certain that you remove all paint from the pieces. This is very important due to lead paint that had been banned in 1977.
Even if the piece is more recent, you cannot be sure if some repainted it and with what sort of paint. You should be cautious of furniture produced from medium density fibreboard since it releases a gas called formaldehyde, which may cause asthma.
Among the best ways you can be a green parent would be to buy an organic baby's crib mattress. Organic items are made from toxin-free materials. A non-organic mattress comes from the manufacturing plant with a lot of chemicals. This is evident by the smell. Should you choose to go with a non-organic crib mattress, just be sure to give it time to get some fresh air .
The great baby diaper discussion has been raging for many years. Disposable baby diapers fill the landfills, but fabric diapers need energy and water to wash. Well let us place the environment aside and take into consideration your baby’s bottom and skin. The cloth diaper is best for baby’s delicate skin. In addition disposable diapers do have off-gassing.
One challenge with cloth diapers is that you have to empty the “mess” in to a commode before you launder them. This is where the hybrid diaper includes the best of all possible worlds. You can find cloth diapers with 100% biodegradable inserts that could be flushed or thrown away.
Although “being green” has become somewhat of a fashion statement the past couple of years, it remains our responsibility as parents to make our house a safe environment for our little ones. Make it a habit to read the label before you buy a product and use your Smartphone in the store to Google any strange ingredients you don’t know.
"The frog does not drink up the pond in which he lives."
- Native American Proverb
Thu, 16 January 2014
The South African Weather Services issued an alert for extreme temperatures across Gauteng and other parts of the country on Thursday.
"In order for the current temperatures to be considered as a heat wave they have to be at least five degrees higher than expected temperatures for this time of year, ...
Thu, 2 January 2014
A New YearFive, four, three, two, one, Happy New Year! These well know words indicate the start of a new year. Committed we update our new-year’s-resolutions list, even though it is only in our minds.
And (just like the previous year) there are a few standard items that will again ...
Fri, 20 December 2013
A big spoil for moms to be!
The Mom2B range of Pregnancy Shakes, Pregnancy Supplements and Omega capsules is treating moms-in-waiting with a lovely manicure or pedicure when they buy any two Mom2B nutritional support products.
Claiming free pamper treatments from now until the end of March 2014 is simple. Retain ...
Mon, 2 December 2013
This is an old comparison but every December we look at it and just have to share it with our visitors. What do you think? Please leave a comment at the end of the story.
Santa lives at the North Pole
Jesus is everywhere
Santa rides in a sleigh
Jesus rides on the wind ...
Mon, 4 November 2013
It is normal to itch during pregnancy due to changes in hormones and skin stretching. However, in a few cases this itching could be the main symptom of a high-risk pregnancy condition called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).
What is intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP)?
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the ...
Mon, 14 October 2013
Breast CancerOctober is International Breast Cancer awareness month. Here is a few interesting facts about breast cancer.
What Is Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is a malignant (cancer) tumor that starts from cells of the breast. It is found mostly in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.
A woman's breast is made ...
Sun, 22 September 2013
It seems like such a cliché that kids grow up so fast, but parents would know that it really is the case! It seems like yesterday that your little Angel started to walk and today she is pleading with you to take dance lessons. Inevitable we start to wonder whether ...
Sat, 7 September 2013
Spring is in the air – or rather – pollen is in the airWinter is hanging on for dear life, but the first signs of spring are already visible. Trees are being decorated with the most beautiful pink and white blossoms. Gardens seem to burst with energy as lawns are ...
Sun, 25 August 2013
Does this nappy make me look fat?
There is an e-mail going around based on a popular greeting card that depicts a baby girl looking over her shoulder, with the words: “Does this nappy make me look fat?” This is an illustration of society’s obsession with a socially acceptable level of ...
Sun, 18 August 2013
A vast majority of women fall pregnant whilst working. Often they are not aware of all the laws pertaining to pregnancy in the workplace, as well as maternity leave after the baby is born.
Thankfully the South African laws (all 6 relevant ones) are on the employee’s side, and the ...
Wed, 7 August 2013
Decisions regarding your children and their futures are serious topics and need thoughtful consideration. While some might seem easy, such as which school to send them to or what to get them for their first birthdays, choosing the right guardian – should something happen to you – could drastically affect ...
Wed, 31 July 2013
The arrival of a new-born will take up much of the parents’ time once they arrive. The first born who is used to being the centre of attention will naturally find this difficult to handle and the jealousy may cause them to act out.
Therefore it is necessary for parents ...
Sun, 21 July 2013
If a fairy godmother offered you a magic potion that would magically boost your baby’s immune system, fight infections and diseases like ear infection, meningitis, diarrhoea, urinary tract and respiratory infections and simultaneously boost intelligence and reduce his or her risk of obesity or contracting diabetes and leukaemia, wouldn’t you ...